Age related macular degeneration
is traditionally described as a form of the disease which
affects individuals over the age of 55 years.
However, we have recently discovered that a significant
number of these individuals may have a major genetic
component that contributes to the disease.
2 types of AMD, dry and wet. Dry AMD is more common, causing about
90% of AMD. It can develop so gradually that in the beginning stages
you might not notice changes in vision. Wet AMD is less common
(about 10% of cases) but is more severe and may progress more
Dry macular degeneration, in which the cells of the macula
slowly begin to break down, is diagnosed in 90 percent of the cases.
Yellow deposits called "drusen" form under the retina between the
retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and Bruch’s membrane, which
supports the retina. Drusen deposits are "debris" associated with
compromised cell metabolism in the RPE and are often the first sign
of macular degeneration. Eventually, there is a deterioration of the
macular regions associated with the drusen deposits resulting in a
spotty loss of "straight ahead" vision.
Wet macular degeneration occurs when abnormal blood vessels
grow behind the macula, then bleed. There is a breakdown in Bruch’s
membrane, which usually occurs near drusen deposits. This is
where the new blood vessel growth occurs (neovascularization). These
vessels are very fragile and leak fluid and blood (hence ‘wet’),
resulting in scarring of the macula and the potential for rapid,
severe damage. "Straight ahead" vision can become distorted or lost
entirely in a short period of time, sometimes within days. Wet
macular degeneration accounts for approximately 10% of the cases,
however it results in 90% of the legal blindness.
What does macular degeneration do to your vision?
Macular degeneration is the imprecise historical name given to that
group of diseases that causes sight-sensing cells in the macular
zone of the retina to malfunction or lose function and results in
debilitating loss of vital central or detail vision.
What are the Symptoms of Macular Degeneration?
Macular degeneration can cause different symptoms in different
people. Sometimes only one eye loses vision while the other eye
continues to see well for many years. The condition may be hardly
noticeable in its early stages. But when both eyes are affected,
reading and close up work can become difficult.
What can you or your loved one do if diagnosed with macular
First it is important to modify those environmental risk factors
that we know about. You should:
Eat a low-fat, low cholesterol diet.
Wear sunglasses with UV protection.
Try to consume at least two servings of leafy dark green vegetables
Do not smoke and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke.
If you are post-menopausal, you should consult with
your physician concerning estrogen replacement therapy. This may
have a favorable impact upon cholesterol lipid levels that play a
role in worsening the disease.
Develop healthy habits! If you
smoke, QUIT SMOKING! Exercising, maintaining normal blood pressure,
cholesterol levels and eating a healthy diet is a step in the right
Eat food and-or supplements rich in vitamin E,C and Lutein. Lutein
is a plant antioxidant found in high quantities in spinach, kale and
other dark green, leafy vegetables.
People who eat fish and
green leafy vegetables may be at lower risk of AMD. There is no
treatment for early dry AMD, although a special combination of
supplements (zinc and antioxidant vitamins) may slow progression in
some people with more advanced disease. Early intervention for wet
AMD can delay progression.